Public health impact of stis health and social care essay
Sexually transmitted diseases. Over and Piot also found that, in developing countries, targeting groups with the highest rates of sex partner change markedly improves the cost-effectiveness of HIV and other STD prevention efforts.
However, with the introduction of the condoms and an intense campaign to adopt a healthy behavior can salvage the situation. Further, new research shows that many common diseases of previously unknown cause, such as cervical dysplasia, are in fact caused by newly described sexually transmitted pathogens.
This article will review the epidemiology, clinical features, diagnosis, etiology and management of Chlamydia. Health Consequences for Pregnant Women and Infants STDs are associated with multiple acute complications for pregnant women and their infants Brunham et al.
Some cases of acute pelvic inflammatory disease result in abscesses involving the ovaries and fallopian tubes, which require surgical intervention. In addition, the rate of primary and secondary syphilis in the United States was 6. Percentage of isolates resistant to antibiotics, Gonococcal Isolate Surveillance Project, Methodological assessment of reviewed studies We used a modified version of the Critical Appraisal Form from the Stanford School of Medicine to assess the methodology of the studies included in the review [ 35 ]. STDs most commonly affect people who are between the ages of 15 and 44, the group that is most economically productive Over and Piot, J Inf Dis ; Suppl 2 :S Such factors may cause serious obstacles to STD prevention due to their influence on social and sexual networks, access to and provision of care, willingness to seek care, and social norms regarding sex and sexuality. Such models are very complex and dependent on many assumptions related to sexual behaviors, the natural history and epidemiology of STDs, and the interactions between STDs and HIV. Sex is sex, first time or not. A person may have only 1 sex partner, but if that partner is a member of a risky sexual network, then the person is at higher risk for STDs than a similar individual from a lower-risk network.
In the studies, generally both male and female adolescents varying in age from years were surveyed. Pelvic inflammatory disease is a preventable complication of these sexually transmitted infections Washington et al. From the mids however, increases in the diagnoses of sexually transmitted diseases, in particular syphilis, gonorrhoea and chlamydia have been reported in several European countries, especially among teenagers years old [ 2 — 7 ].
Human herpes virus type 8 HHV8 is a newly discovered virus, probably sexually transmitted, that may cause Kaposi's sarcoma and certain forms of lymphoma.
Effects of stds on the family
The prevailing sexuality education system in the US is abstinence-only sex education programs. The reluctance of adolescents to use condoms is another possible explanation for the increase in STDs. On an individual level, complications can include pelvic inflammatory diseases and possibly lead to ectopic pregnancies and infertility [ 8 — 11 ]. Planned Parenthood reports that it is three times more common than gonorrhea and 50 times more common than syphilis. Clin Inf Dis ; Trichomoniasis is considered the most common curable STD. By far the most frequent one is chlamydia. Table 1 Results of methodological assessment of studies included in the review Full size table Definition of awareness and knowledge For the purpose of this review studies were said to have assessed awareness if participants were merely required to identify an STD from a given list or name an STD in response to an open question. The research was carried out by inoculating the STDs into the prisoners and trying various treatment options.
The serious long-term complications of STDs affecting millions of women, infants, and men in the United States each year are summarized in Table No points were allocated. The pupils completed questionnaires in school in 10 studies, and in two the questionnaires were completed at home [ 4548 ].
Economic implications of stds
STDs may cause serious, life-threatening complications including cancers, infertility, ectopic pregnancy, spontaneous abortions, stillbirth, low birth weight, neurologic damage, and death. Even then, symptoms of pelvic inflammatory disease due to chlamydial infection may be absent or non-specific, resulting in as many as 85 percent of women delaying seeking medical care, thus increasing their risk for long-term complications Hillis et al. Even when deaths caused by human papillomavirus and hepatitis B virus were not considered, five other STDs HIV infection, chlamydial infection, gonorrhea, syphilis, and chancroid ranked among the top 20 causes of loss of productive life in a sub-Saharan African country Over and Piot, The above health problems are all recognized consequences of symptomatic pelvic inflammatory disease. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were specified in advance and documented in a protocol Additional File 1. Studies show that cervical infection with oncogenic types of human papillomavirus is associated with at least 80 percent of invasive cervical cancer cases NIH, and that women with human papillomavirus infection of the cervix are 10 times more likely to develop invasive cervical cancer compared to women without human papillomavirus infection Schiffman, Vaginal and cervical infections with STD pathogens can lead to inflammation of the placenta or fetal membranes, resulting in maternal fever during or after delivery, to wound and pelvic infections after Cesarean section, and to postpartum infection of the uterus that may result in infertility Brunham et al. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic carriage of Chlamydia trachomatis antigen in urine samples as a non-invasive method. For syphilis, gonorrhoea and herpes only awareness was assessed. It is nonmotile and a gram-negative cocci bacteria. A typical pelvic inflammatory disease: can we identify clinical predictors?
Some cases of acute pelvic inflammatory disease result in abscesses involving the ovaries and fallopian tubes, which require surgical intervention. In the development stage of human beings, it is of significance that they involve themselves in sexual activities.
Effects of stds on the community
STDs affect guys and girls of all ages and backgrounds who are having sex, including oral and anal sex, and having skin to skin contact with an infected area or sore. For example, the reported incidence of gonorrhea in was By this measure also, STDs rank as a formidable health problem. Not only is it quite common in developed countries but an increase in cases has sprung up in developing countries as well. This type of infertility is treated by tubal microsurgery which attempts to repair the damaged tubes or by in vitro fertilization in which an egg is surgically removed from the ovary, mixed with sperm and fertilized outside the body, and then placed directly into the uterus, thus bypassing the blocked fallopian tubes. In addition, for many previously described pathogens, such as hepatitis B virus and cytomegalovirus, it has become evident that a major route of adult transmission—often the major route—is sexual. Percentage of isolates resistant to antibiotics, Gonococcal Isolate Surveillance Project, Ectopic Pregnancy Ectopic pregnancy usually results from partial tubal blockage due to pelvic inflammatory disease. Adolescents and young adults are at greatest risk for acquiring STDs. Their cervixes also aren 't fully developed, and are more susceptible to infection by chlamydia, gonorrhea, and other STDs. The highest risk group for chlamydia infections are sexually active females aged 14 to 24 years CDC,
based on 1 review